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  • Kakatiya Dynasty Short Notes For UPSC

    Kakatiya Dynasty Short Notes For UPSC

    Introduction

    • The Kakatiyas were a known indigenous Andhra power. The Kakatiyas shaped the identity of the Andhras by establishing a consolidated political and cultural authority over the whole Telugu-speaking region. Therefore, the memory of the Kakatiya rule is fresh in the minds and hearts of the Andhrajati even today.
    • Initially, they were the feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana. They ruled over a small region near Warangal. Prataparudra founded a sovereign kingdom in 1163 CE. The dynasty witnessed powerful rulers such as Ganapathi Deva and Rudramadevi.
    • They worshipped the goddess Kakati. Therefore family was called Kakatiyas. The Kakatiyas also worshipped of Svayambhuva, i.e., Siva.
    • The epigraphs further state that initially the Kakatiyas were of some Ratta or Rashtrakuta family and consequently Chaturdhakulajas or Sudras.

    Establishment of Kakatiya kingdom

    • During the 9th and 10th century, they were the subordinates of the Rashtrakutas. After the defeat of the Rashtrakuta power by the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kakatiyas became their feudatories or Mahamandaleshwar under the Chalukyas of Kalyani.
    • It was Prola II, who founded the Kakatiya Dynasty as a sovereign dynasty. Rudradeva, who ruled from AD 1158 to 1195, was the son and successor of Prola II. Also, Prola II was the founder of the Kakatiya family as he stated independence and started sovereign rule.

    Kings and their achievements 

    Betaraja I

    1. Founder of the dynasty
    2. Ruled as feudatory chief of Kalyani Chalukyas
    3. Set his capital at Koravi.
    4. Succeeded by his son Prolaraja I.

    Prolaraja l

    1. Ruled as a feudatory of Kalyani Chalukyas
    2. He was a follower of Shiva and known as ‘Air Gajakesari’
    3. Built Kesari Tatakam
    4. Acquired hereditary claims of Anumakonda Vishaya from Someshwara of Kalyani Chalukyas.

    Betaraja II

    1. Ruled as a feudatory of Kalyani Chalukyas
    2. Built an enormous tank at Anumakonda

    Prola II

    1. He was the first sovereign ruler of Kakatiyas. 

    Rudradeva

    1. His name is stated on the popular inscription in the Rudreshwar temple at Anumakonda,
    2. He was a supporter of art literature and authored the Nitisara in Sanskrit.
    3. Built the grand Rudreshwar temple in Hanamkonda.

    Mahadeva

    1. Succeeded his brother Rudradeva but only for three years. 
    2. He died while besieging the Yadava capital Devagiri.

    Ganapathi Deva

    1. He was most famous among all Kakatiyas and ruled for a long time. 
    2. The famous poet Tikkana Somayaji who was his court poet. 
    3. Assumed the title of ‘Rayagajekesar”. 
    4. He was a supporter of trade and commerce and issued “Abhya Sasanam’ at Motupalli port.

    Rani Rudramadevi

    1. She was the daughter of Ganapathideva. 
    2. She was the first woman ruler of the Kakatiya Dynasty and Andhra. 
    3. During her reign, Italian traveler Marco Polo visited the Motupalli port.

    Prataparudra

    1. He was the son of Rani Rudramadevi’s daughter
    2. According to the Prolaya Nayaka Prataparudra copper plate inscription, Prataparudra could not tolerate the humiliation and defeat against Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. So he committed suicide on the banks of river Narmada.

     

    Architecture 

    • Their temple architecture reflects great sophistication. The Thousand-pillared temple is a landmark in the evolution of the Kakatiya architectural style. The great Rudreshwar temple was built by Recharla Rudra, the commander in chief of Ganapati Deva.
    • The architects used granite and sandstone in the main structure and used bricks and lime in the construction superstructure. They used black granite for pillars and decoration.
    • The Gomateshwara temple at Manthani, the Erakesvara, and the Namesvara temples at Pillalamarri and the temple at Naguladu are the classics of the Kakatiya style of architecture.
    • The temples at Nandigonda and Narasimha temple at Parivela near Nalgonda contain richly decorated Mandapa pillars and ceilings.

     

    Paintings

    • The Kakatiyas also supported to the art of painting.
    • The traces of painting are found on ceilings of the pillared halls of the temples at Ghanpur and Palampet. Also, the damaged painting of the Churning of the Milk Ocean found on the ceiling of the Sabha Mandapa of the Namovara temple at Pillalamarri. These are good examples of their painting skill.

     

    Literature

    AuthorsFamous Books
    VidyanadhaPrataparudra Bhushana
    JayapasenaniNrityaratnauali, Gitaratnavali
    Tikkanna
    Mantri BhaskaraBhaskara Ramayana
    Gona Budda ReddyRanganatha Ramayanam
    Palkuriki SomanathaBasava Puranam,
    Panditaradhya Charitra

     

    Conclusion

    Kakatiyas supported art and architecture. Agriculture, commerce, and trade flourished under their integrative rule. However, In the 13th century. Kakatiya Dynasty faced several invasions of the Delhi Sultanate and eventually came to an end in 1323 AD when Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq captured the capital city Warangal.

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